province of Canakkale lies on both sides of
the Dardanelles which connects the Sea of Marmara to the Aegean Sea. Its
shores touch both Europe (with the Gelibolu
Peninsula) and Asia (with the Biga Peninsula)
and there are ferries here between the two sides. The well-equipped Canakkale
Marina, besides those of Karabiga, Gelibolu, Bozcaada and
Kucukkuyu, hosts the colorful yachts which pass through the strait and
make a stopover at Canakkale, to see this historical and mythological-rich
area-homeland of many widely known legends. The province has witnessed
two very important battles in history. One of them is the mythological
war of Troy, which Homer immortalized in his
Illiad. Archeological digs in Troy (Truva) have proved that there had
been nine separate periods of settlement. (3000 BC-AD 400). Here, one
can see the ruins of city walls in addition to the Wooden
Horse of Troy. The other one is the Battle of
Canakkale which took place during World War I when Turkish
troops under the command of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk maintained the defense
of the region against enemy forces and Canakkale has taken its place in
history as "Canakkale; unpassable". To honor the 500,000 soldiers
who gave their lives at Gelibolu (Gallipoli), this peninsula has been
made a national park of remembrance. There are memorial monuments here
in surroundings of natural beauty.
The small village of Behramkale
is a lovely place, facing the Gulf of Edremit. It is founded on the site of Assos
where there is the famous Temple of Athena built in the
6th-century BC. The panoramic view of the Gulf from the top of the acropolis is
breathtaking and the remains of Assos, surrounding the acropolis are worth visiting.
Gokceada, the largest of the
Turkish islands, and Bozcaada are also in this region and they
have many camping facilities.
Ancient Troy is famous for the legendary Trojan
Horse from the times of an equally legendary couple: Helen and
Paris. The remains of the city were excavated by Heinrich Schliemann, a
German archeologist who used Homerís Iliad to locate the site, and who also took all of
the invaluable treasures he found there back to Germany with him. Homer had immortalized
Troy with his immortal narration of the stories of King Priam, Hector, Paris
and the beautiful Helen. Excavations revealed nine separate periods (layers)
of settlement. The ruins include a temple, a theater and foundations. Today, a recent
wooden copy of the famous Trojan Horse symbolically stands on the site to recall its
legendary original since long vanished.
The earliest - known inhabitants of the region lived in the
Chalcolithic sites of Besiktepe and Kumtepe. They were followed by Trojans who lived in
this land dating back from 3000 B.C. to 1200 B.C. without being influenced. After Troy had
been sacked, Achaeans settled. During t he migrations across the Aegean Sea, some others
came and settles. Finally, after the death of the Commander Roger De Flor, the Catalonians
controlled the region but they handed it over to Turkish Beys after reaching an agreement
It is located on a mound called "Hisarlik"
on the south - east side of the plain of the River Scamander, where the Straits join with
the Aegean and are tat-her narrow, within the boundaries of the Province of Canakkale.
Troy is famous for different reasons. First, it is associated with the sagas of the Trojan
War told by Homer in the "Iliad" and the ďOdyses".
Second, it is linked with the German excavator Schliemann who dug the ground the first
time. At the end of the excavations nine cities have been unearthed. Later on they have
been subdivided into 46 strata.
TROY 1 (3000-2500 B.C.) : This layer,
which consists of ten strata, is the initial settlement of the Early Bronze Age. It
occupies a small area. Judging from the walls, it may be considered that the city's
civilization at the time surpassed the neighboring civilizations. One story - houses have
been found during the excavations. As a construction material sun dried the people of Troy
have used bricks.
TROY II (2500-2200 B.C.) : It is the first
settlement where we see town planning first. The area covered by second city is larger
than the first one. This settlement composed of seven layers. Stones were used as a
construction material at the bases. The upper parts of walls were sun - dried clay bricks.
The most interesting building from this period is the megaron house with the pillars. Troy
11 has been the center of contemporary civilization at the time. It ended in a raging
TROY III (2200-MO B.C.) : The city,
which covers a larger area than the previous one, is again surrounded by the walls. The
settlement is not well planned, there are irregular blocks of ho- uses scattered on the
site. The most striking feature of the period is that the stones were used in the
construction of the city walls. The buildings became larger and developed. The base was
earth. They were constructed on the ground.
TROY IV (2052-1900 B.C.) : This
settlement, which has be- en founded on the second city, is about 17.000 square meters.
This settlement was subdivided into five layers. Main future of the settlement is that the
blocks of the houses were attached to each other. The most striking feature of the period
is that by building birch houses based on stones, they have returned to the technique of
the second city.
TROY V (1900-1800 B.C.) : We see a
development both in the building technique and the workmanship in the construction of the
walls and the houses. The walls are neat and well - designed. The houses consisted of a
big hall, a courtyard, and a few rooms.
TROY VI (1800-1300 B.C.) : It was a very
prominent Acropolis of the period with its strong walls, and very well - planned,
beautiful houses. It consisted of 8 strata and was founded in the Middle Bronze Age; the
layer is very different from the other layers. Both in the construction technique and the
fortifications a big advance occurred. It can be sa- id that a kind of architectural
technique was realized. Houses were not attached to each other. They advanced both in size
and com- fort. Ten houses are still in a good condition surviving till our time on the
TROY VII / A (1300-1260 B.C.) : The most
striking feature of the period is the pithoi in situ under the floors of the houses. It is
believed that they were used to store food and liquid supplies for an emergency. The
houses huddling together were roughly built. They raise one above the other in concentric
circles. According to Carl W. Blegen this was Priam's city.
TROY VII B 1 (1260-1190 B.C.) : It was
founded on Troy VII A. The debris of the devayed city varies from 0.50 meters to 1.00
meters. The style of the construction continued in this city.
TROY VII B 2 (1190-110 B.C.) : In this
period we see that the new people settled in Troy changed the building technique. They
combined the single roomed ho- uses. So they were enlarged to get more room. The most
prominent feature of the buildings is the use of orthostats. They were used to strengthen
the lower courses of the walls. Fire and left again destroyed it.
TROY IX (350-400 A.D.) : In this period
the city spread and covered the whole monud. It was the biggest city ever known. -During
the reign of Augustus the city was repaired. The temple of Athena was the most important
building. It was erected on the mound in Doric order supported by a podium with three
steps. Ro- man ruins are on the south - western section between the temple of Athena and
the town walls. The Bouleuterion, theatre, and the auditorium all date from the Roman
It is about 11 km. from Canakkale near the Kalabakli stream
in Maltepe. During the construction of summerhouses for the Cement Factory in 1959 a
family tumulus was unearthed. This shed light on the history of the region. Findings date
from archaic periods VII, VI. B.C. and the Roman period 11 A.D.
It is about 34 km. away Canakkale. It is in Yenikoy. In
Classical Era Pisistratos and his son settled in this region.
It is located in the south of Nara Point and is about 2 km.
away from Canakkale. The remains were unearthed in 1675. It was not excavated very well.
It is an impressive work of art which gave its name to the
pre- sent town. It was built by Mehmet Conqueror in the 15 th century. During the reign of
Suleyman the Magnificent it was again repaired in 1551. It consists of two main parts,
other walls and the central keep.
It is about 6 km. away from Canakkale. The construction of
castle started in 1807 during the reign of Selim 111, but it was finished during the reign
of Mahmut 11. In the construction of the walls the re- mains of Abyclos were used.
It is located on the southern edge of Canakkale Carsisi. It
was built by Mehmet the Conqueror in 1452. It was renewed by the Sultan Abdulaziz in 1862
and 1863. It was enlarged and two more sections were added to the mosque after the
It is in the castle. Two of the walls and Mihrab (the
niche) are in good condition.
It is about 10 km. away from Canakkale, on the road to Can.
The remains of two castles facing each other can be seen.
It is famous the remains of Assos and Chryse.
Assos lies within the village of Behremkale.
It is believed that Assos was founded by the people of Methymna in the 7th century B.C. a
town on the island of Lesbos. Walls surround the Acropolis, built on a hill dominating
both sea and land, about 3 km. in length. These walls were distinctively built at the time
expressing different style and workmanship. The gateways, which were built in different
design and character, are very interesting. The temple of Athena
built on the highest points of the hill, the bouleterion, consisting of statuettes, small
monumental buildings, and the gymnasium the theatre stoa and the necropolis from Roman
period, and the agora are the finest examples of the period. Apart from Assos in Ayvacik;
Chryse in GoIpinar Bahcelerici, the shrine of Apollo Smintheus with luted pillars which is
one of three in Turkey (Didyma Apollon, Ephesus Artemis), the altar of Zeus in Adatepe,
mentioned in Iliad by Homer, the Roman bridge in Golpinar, Babakale Mosque, built by
Kaymak Mustafa Pasha in the seventeenth century, Hudavendigar Mosque, built on a hill near
Assos, the stone bridge built over Tuzla stream are all historical ruins worth visiting.
Having the ruins of the Alexandria Troas and Neandria
cities, the district is one of the most important settlement centers. An ancient harbor
city, Alexandria Troas in Dalyan town, Neandria having its interesting ramparts and towers
on the mountain of Cion near Kiyica town are the important ruins for the district. The
first sample of Ottoman mosques is Abdurrahman Mosque in the district. Seher Sah Mosque
and bath built during the period of Yildirim Beyazid in XIV. Century, Ahu Yunus Tomb in
front of the Seher Sah Mosque, Aslihan Bey Complex with its mosque, bath and tomb is
Kemali Village and Tuzla Complex with its school, mosque and bath have historical values
coming from the past.
The district called Gallipolis in antique period is adorned
with historical buildings during XIV. And XV. Centuries. Unfortunately the most was
clestoreyed and the less reached today. It's estimated that Gallipolis was set up in VII
Century B.C. Gallipolis Fortress constructed during antique time was restoration by
Justiniaus I., Ulu Mosque (Hudavendigar Mosque) built during Murad L, Azebler Worship
Place having majestic and royal image among the similar buildings, Yazicioglu Mosque,
Sofca Halil Mosque, Ahmet Bican, Sarica Pasha and Yazicioglu Tombs are some of the
historical works of art the dist- rict. Kasapoglu Alibey and Saruca Pasha Baths, Bolayir
Gazi Suleyman Pasha Mosque and Tomb and also Namik Kemal's grave are the remarkable one in
Unfortunately sufficient research has not been realized in
the district wich has been important settlement area since the ancient times. Kebren in
Akpinar and Cal- dap towns and Skepsis in Kursunlu town are the most famous historical
The district known as Pigas in X11 century was established
on the area of old Pegae Adreste settled on the coast of Kocabas stream in Gumuscay
subdistrict, Parium (Parion) near Kemer town and Pryapos in Karabiga sub district are the
main ancient ruins on whish have not made detailed researches.
The district known as Teneclos has been mentioned on the
famous epic poem, Iliad and Odyssey by Homer. The grave in the district found by
excavations from Roman period VI century BC includes soil statues, pots and pans