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Canakkale-Troy-Assos

 

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The province of Canakkale lies on both sides of the Dardanelles which connects the Sea of Marmara to the Aegean Sea. Its shores touch both Europe (with the Gelibolu Peninsula) and Asia (with the Biga Peninsula) and there are ferries here between the two sides. The well-equipped Canakkale Marina, besides those of Karabiga, Gelibolu, Bozcaada and Kucukkuyu, hosts the colorful yachts which pass through the strait and make a stopover at Canakkale, to see this historical and mythological-rich area-homeland of many widely known legends. The province has witnessed two very important battles in history. One of them is the mythological war of Troy, which Homer immortalized in his Illiad. Archeological digs in Troy (Truva) have proved that there had been nine separate periods of settlement. (3000 BC-AD 400). Here, one can see the ruins of city walls in addition to the Wooden Horse of Troy. The other one is the Battle of Canakkale which took place during World War I when Turkish troops under the command of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk maintained the defense of the region against enemy forces and Canakkale has taken its place in history as "Canakkale; unpassable". To honor the 500,000 soldiers who gave their lives at Gelibolu (Gallipoli), this peninsula has been made a national park of remembrance. There are memorial monuments here in surroundings of natural beauty.

The small village of Behramkale is a lovely place, facing the Gulf of Edremit. It is founded on the site of Assos where there is the famous Temple of Athena built in the 6th-century BC. The panoramic view of the Gulf from the top of the acropolis is breathtaking and the remains of Assos, surrounding the acropolis are worth visiting.

Gokceada, the largest of the Turkish islands, and Bozcaada are also in this region and they have many camping facilities.

TROY-Truva

Ancient Troy is famous for the legendary Trojan Horse from the times of an equally legendary couple: Helen and Paris. The remains of the city were excavated by Heinrich Schliemann, a German archeologist who used Homerís Iliad to locate the site, and who also took all of the invaluable treasures he found there back to Germany with him. Homer had immortalized Troy with his immortal narration of the stories of King Priam, Hector, Paris and the beautiful Helen. Excavations revealed nine separate periods (layers) of settlement. The ruins include a temple, a theater and foundations. Today, a recent wooden copy of the famous Trojan Horse symbolically stands on the site to recall its legendary original since long vanished.

The earliest - known inhabitants of the region lived in the Chalcolithic sites of Besiktepe and Kumtepe. They were followed by Trojans who lived in this land dating back from 3000 B.C. to 1200 B.C. without being influenced. After Troy had been sacked, Achaeans settled. During t he migrations across the Aegean Sea, some others came and settles. Finally, after the death of the Commander Roger De Flor, the Catalonians controlled the region but they handed it over to Turkish Beys after reaching an agreement with them.

TROY

It is located on a mound called "Hisarlik" on the south - east side of the plain of the River Scamander, where the Straits join with the Aegean and are tat-her narrow, within the boundaries of the Province of Canakkale. Troy is famous for different reasons. First, it is associated with the sagas of the Trojan War told by Homer in the "Iliad" and the ďOdyses". Second, it is linked with the German excavator Schliemann who dug the ground the first time. At the end of the excavations nine cities have been unearthed. Later on they have been subdivided into 46 strata.

TROY 1 (3000-2500 B.C.) : This layer, which consists of ten strata, is the initial settlement of the Early Bronze Age. It occupies a small area. Judging from the walls, it may be considered that the city's civilization at the time surpassed the neighboring civilizations. One story - houses have been found during the excavations. As a construction material sun dried the people of Troy have used bricks.

TROY II (2500-2200 B.C.) : It is the first settlement where we see town planning first. The area covered by second city is larger than the first one. This settlement composed of seven layers. Stones were used as a construction material at the bases. The upper parts of walls were sun - dried clay bricks. The most interesting building from this period is the megaron house with the pillars. Troy 11 has been the center of contemporary civilization at the time. It ended in a raging fire.

TROY III (2200-MO B.C.) :  The city, which covers a larger area than the previous one, is again surrounded by the walls. The settlement is not well planned, there are irregular blocks of ho- uses scattered on the site. The most striking feature of the period is that the stones were used in the construction of the city walls. The buildings became larger and developed. The base was earth. They were constructed on the ground.

TROY IV (2052-1900 B.C.) : This settlement, which has be- en founded on the second city, is about 17.000 square meters. This settlement was subdivided into five layers. Main future of the settlement is that the blocks of the houses were attached to each other. The most striking feature of the period is that by building birch houses based on stones, they have returned to the technique of the second city.

TROY V (1900-1800 B.C.) : We see a development both in the building technique and the workmanship in the construction of the walls and the houses. The walls are neat and well - designed. The houses consisted of a big hall, a courtyard, and a few rooms.

TROY VI (1800-1300 B.C.) : It was a very prominent Acropolis of the period with its strong walls, and very well - planned, beautiful houses. It consisted of 8 strata and was founded in the Middle Bronze Age; the layer is very different from the other layers. Both in the construction technique and the fortifications a big advance occurred. It can be sa- id that a kind of architectural technique was realized. Houses were not attached to each other. They advanced both in size and com- fort. Ten houses are still in a good condition surviving till our time on the site.

TROY VII / A (1300-1260 B.C.) : The most striking feature of the period is the pithoi in situ under the floors of the houses. It is believed that they were used to store food and liquid supplies for an emergency. The houses huddling together were roughly built. They raise one above the other in concentric circles. According to Carl W. Blegen this was Priam's city.

TROY VII B 1 (1260-1190 B.C.) : It was founded on Troy VII A. The debris of the devayed city varies from 0.50 meters to 1.00 meters. The style of the construction continued in this city.

TROY VII B 2 (1190-110 B.C.) : In this period we see that the new people settled in Troy changed the building technique. They combined the single roomed ho- uses. So they were enlarged to get more room. The most prominent feature of the buildings is the use of orthostats. They were used to strengthen the lower courses of the walls. Fire and left again destroyed it.

TROY IX (350-400 A.D.) : In this period the city spread and covered the whole monud. It was the biggest city ever known. -During the reign of Augustus the city was repaired. The temple of Athena was the most important building. It was erected on the mound in Doric order supported by a podium with three steps. Ro- man ruins are on the south - western section between the temple of Athena and the town walls. The Bouleuterion, theatre, and the auditorium all date from the Roman period.

DARDANOS

It is about 11 km. from Canakkale near the Kalabakli stream in Maltepe. During the construction of summerhouses for the Cement Factory in 1959 a family tumulus was unearthed. This shed light on the history of the region. Findings date from archaic periods VII, VI. B.C. and the Roman period 11 A.D.

SIGEON

It is about 34 km. away Canakkale. It is in Yenikoy. In Classical Era Pisistratos and his son settled in this region.

ABYDOS

It is located in the south of Nara Point and is about 2 km. away from Canakkale. The remains were unearthed in 1675. It was not excavated very well.

SULTAN CASTLE

It is an impressive work of art which gave its name to the pre- sent town. It was built by Mehmet Conqueror in the 15 th century. During the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent it was again repaired in 1551. It consists of two main parts, other walls and the central keep.

NARA CASTLE

It is about 6 km. away from Canakkale. The construction of castle started in 1807 during the reign of Selim 111, but it was finished during the reign of Mahmut 11. In the construction of the walls the re- mains of Abyclos were used.

FATIH MOSQUE

It is located on the southern edge of Canakkale Carsisi. It was built by Mehmet the Conqueror in 1452. It was renewed by the Sultan Abdulaziz in 1862 and 1863. It was enlarged and two more sections were added to the mosque after the minaret.

KALE MESCID1

It is in the castle. Two of the walls and Mihrab (the niche) are in good condition.

ATIK HISAR

It is about 10 km. away from Canakkale, on the road to Can. The remains of two castles facing each other can be seen.

AYVACIK DISTRICT

It is famous the remains of Assos and Chryse.

ASSOS

Assos lies within the village of Behremkale. It is believed that Assos was founded by the people of Methymna in the 7th century B.C. a town on the island of Lesbos. Walls surround the Acropolis, built on a hill dominating both sea and land, about 3 km. in length. These walls were distinctively built at the time expressing different style and workmanship. The gateways, which were built in different design and character, are very interesting. The temple of Athena built on the highest points of the hill, the bouleterion, consisting of statuettes, small monumental buildings, and the gymnasium the theatre stoa and the necropolis from Roman period, and the agora are the finest examples of the period. Apart from Assos in Ayvacik; Chryse in GoIpinar Bahcelerici, the shrine of Apollo Smintheus with luted pillars which is one of three in Turkey (Didyma Apollon, Ephesus Artemis), the altar of Zeus in Adatepe, mentioned in Iliad by Homer, the Roman bridge in Golpinar, Babakale Mosque, built by Kaymak Mustafa Pasha in the seventeenth century, Hudavendigar Mosque, built on a hill near Assos, the stone bridge built over Tuzla stream are all historical ruins worth visiting.

EZINE DISTRICT

Having the ruins of the Alexandria Troas and Neandria cities, the district is one of the most important settlement centers. An ancient harbor city, Alexandria Troas in Dalyan town, Neandria having its interesting ramparts and towers on the mountain of Cion near Kiyica town are the important ruins for the district. The first sample of Ottoman mosques is Abdurrahman Mosque in the district. Seher Sah Mosque and bath built during the period of Yildirim Beyazid in XIV. Century, Ahu Yunus Tomb in front of the Seher Sah Mosque, Aslihan Bey Complex with its mosque, bath and tomb is Kemali Village and Tuzla Complex with its school, mosque and bath have historical values coming from the past.

GELIBOLU DISTRICT

The district called Gallipolis in antique period is adorned with historical buildings during XIV. And XV. Centuries. Unfortunately the most was clestoreyed and the less reached today. It's estimated that Gallipolis was set up in VII Century B.C. Gallipolis Fortress constructed during antique time was restoration by Justiniaus I., Ulu Mosque (Hudavendigar Mosque) built during Murad L, Azebler Worship Place having majestic and royal image among the similar buildings, Yazicioglu Mosque, Sofca Halil Mosque, Ahmet Bican, Sarica Pasha and Yazicioglu Tombs are some of the historical works of art the dist- rict. Kasapoglu Alibey and Saruca Pasha Baths, Bolayir Gazi Suleyman Pasha Mosque and Tomb and also Namik Kemal's grave are the remarkable one in Gelibolu.

BAYRAMIC DISTRICT

Unfortunately sufficient research has not been realized in the district wich has been important settlement area since the ancient times. Kebren in Akpinar and Cal- dap towns and Skepsis in Kursunlu town are the most famous historical ruins.

BIGA DISTRICT

The district known as Pigas in X11 century was established on the area of old Pegae Adreste settled on the coast of Kocabas stream in Gumuscay subdistrict, Parium (Parion) near Kemer town and Pryapos in Karabiga sub district are the main ancient ruins on whish have not made detailed researches.

BOZCAADA DISTRICT

The district known as Teneclos has been mentioned on the famous epic poem, Iliad and Odyssey by Homer. The grave in the district found by excavations from Roman period VI century BC includes soil statues, pots and pans

 


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